Seeker: TV with magnification
Speed: Mach 0.65
Length: 8 ft 2 in
Weight: 464 lb
Warhead: 125 lb shaped charge
Range: 0.6 to 14 miles
Drag factor: 46
The Maverick is a "fire and
forget" air-to-ground missile, enabling the pilot to seek
other targets or leave the area once the missile is launched.
The AGM-65B model uses a TV-imaging seeker with scene magnification
to allow the pilot to acquire targets from a greater distance.
The Maverick employs a high-explosive shaped-charge warhead effective
against tanks, trains and other vehicles.
Seeker: Imaging infrared
Speed: Mach 0.65
Length: 8 ft 2 in
Weight: 500 lb
Warhead: 125 lb shaped charge
Range: 0.6 to 14 miles
Drag factor: 46
The AGM-65D model seeker has an
imaging infrared seeker which allows target acquisition at night
and also helps cut through smoke and dust in the daytime. In
addition, the -65D employs a new lower-smoke motor.
Seeker: Passive radar
Length: 10 ft
Weight: 395 lb
Warhead: 145 lb fragmentation
Range: 12 miles
Drag factor: 40
The AGM-45A Shrike is an anti-radiation
missile effective against continuous wave /CW/ radar emitters.
These include all enemy air defense radar systems except the
SA-8 Grecko. While the F-16 lacks the avionic systems to be a
true Wild Weasel platform, you may be asked to perform this mission
Primary Function: Air-to-surface
Contractor: McDonnell Douglas
Power Plant: Teledyne Turbojet
Thrust: 660 pounds
Length: 12 feet, 7 inches
Weight: 1,145 pounds
Diameter: 13.5 inches
Wing Span: 3 feet
Range: Over the horizon
Speed: High subsonic
Guidance System: Sea-skimming cruise using radar altimeter; active
radar terminal homing
Warheads: Penetrating high-explosive (488 lb)
Date Deployed: 1985
Air Force Inventory: Classified
The AGM-84D Harpoon is an all-weather,
over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system produced by McDonnell
Douglas. Its low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory, active
radar guidance, and warhead design assure high survivability
Originally developed for the
Navy to serve as its basic anti-ship missile for fleetwide use,
the AGM-84D Harpoon also has been adapted for use on Air Combat
Command's B-52G bombers. The 42nd Bombardment Wing, Loring Air
Force Base, Maine, was first tasked to perform the Harpoon mission
in 1985. The wing refined tactics and doctrine to merge the long-range,
heavy-payload capability of the B-52 with the proven reliability
of this superior stand-off attack weapon. These combine to provide
the war-fighting capability to interdict ships at ranges well
beyond those of other aircraft.
Penguin Anti-Ship Missile
Seeker: Passive radar
Length: 13 ft 9 in
Weight: 807 lb
Warhead: 145 lb fragmentation
Range: 30 miles
Drag factor: 46
The AGM-88A HARM /High Speed Anti-Radiation
Missile/ is an upgrade of the Shrike. Towards the end of the
Vietnam War, enemy radar operators learned to turn off the radar
when they detected a Shrike missile launch. The HARM was developed
with a much higher speed and range so it could hit a radar source
without warning. It also has a better target acquisition system
that is effective against both CW and pulse-dopppler radar. Both
the enemy SA-8 Gecko and the allied Roland SAM systems use pulse-doppler
Contractor: Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk
Power Plant: Solid propellant rocket motor and solid propellant
Length: 120.48 inches (3.06 meters)
Launch Weight: 847 pounds (385 kg)
Diameter: 11.2 inches (28.45 cm)
Wing Span: 30 in's folded, 55 in's Deployed
Range: 25 nautical miles / 35 km
Speed: 1.2 Mach
Guidance: Inertial and infrared terminal.
Warhead: 265 lbs gross, 110 lbs High Explosive, semi armor piercing
Date Deployed: 1993
The Penguin is a helicopter launched
anti-ship missile developed for use on Lamps III helicopters
and NATO allies. Penguin is the only operational Navy helicopter-launched
missile in the Navy's weapon inventory. It provides Navy surface
combatants with a defense against surface threats armed with
antiship missiles. Navy testing of Penguin has been completed,
and it achieved IOC in the fourth quarter of FY 1993. All Block
I modified SH-60Bs will be capable of employing Penguin, and
eventually all SH-60Bs. The Navy will acquire approximately 100
Mod 3 versions. A principal operational advantage of Penguin
is its relatively long operational range, which permits a helicopter
armed with Penguin to remain outside the launch envelopes of
potential targets. The Penguin missile has an indirect flight
path to target. It is also operated in "fire-and-forget"
mode to allow multiple target aqusition. The Penguin is fired
from a launcher or a stage weighin approximately 1100 pounds
The Penguin was developed by
and for the Norwegian Navy. The Penguin anti-ship missile was
conceived in the early 1960's as a ship-borne, anti-invasion
defence system. Penguin was the first fire-and-forget anti-ship
missile system to be developed in the Western world. Penguin
MKI became operational with the Norwegian and Turkish navies
in 1972. The MK2 entered service in 1980 with the Norwegian,
Hellenic and Swedish navies. Since then, continuous development
programs have adapted the concept to the technical evolution
of surface warfare.
The air-launched penguin MK3
version (AGM-119A) is chosen as the standard anti-ship missile
for the F-16 Fighting Falcons of the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
and has completed a highly successful Foreign Weapon Evaluation
Program conducted by the US Air Force. The Penguin MK2 MOD7 (AGM-119B)
with folding wings is adapted to the US Navy LAMPS Mk III, SH-60B
helicopters. The Penguin missiles are designed and manufactured
by Norsk Forsvarsteknologi (NFT).
Penguin is a fully digitized
missile with canard control. The high resolution, passive infrared
seeker provides a high degree of discrimination and target selection,
and ensures efficient operation in confined, as well as open
waters. The high accuracy, inertial navigation system ensures
the missile's capability of target detection, and provides the
flexibility of mid-course trajectory via pilot-designated way-point.
An efficient 120 kg warhead,
with an impact point close to the target's waterline, will inflict
serious damage to medium size surface combatants or other targets.
The missile is powered by a solid propellant two stage rocket
motor. The Penguin can be adapted to helicopters, fixed wing
patrol aircraft as well as fighter aircraft. The missile system
is software integrated into the aircraft avionic system. with
the use of existing equipment for suspension, control and operation.
The National Defense Authorization
Act for Fiscal Year 1997 contained a provision that authorized
the Navy to enter into a contract for multiyear procurement of
not more than 106 Penguin missiles and limited the amount that
could be expended for such procurement to $84.8 million. This
provision was based on the existing shortfall in Penguin missile
inventory and the premise that the Navy would be able to negotiate
a very favorable price at around 55 percent of the average unit
procurement cost for previous lots. Congress subsequently appropriated
$7.0 million to procure Penguin missiles in fiscal year 1997
and $7.5 million in fiscal year 1998.
Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile TSSAM
Span 5 ft. 2 in.
Length 8 ft. 4 in.
Body diameter 2 ft. 3 in.
Weight 430 lbs.
Armament WDU-30/B 40 lb. blast fragmentation warhead
Engine Williams International F121 turbofan of 70 lbs. thrust
Cost $200,000 (estimated production version)
Cruising speed Subsonic
Range air-launched = "More than 50 miles"
ground-launched = 430 kilometers
Tacit Rainbow was a project to
develop a jet-powered "mini" drone for finding and
destroying enemy ground based radars. Designated AGM-136A by
the Air Force, the Tacit Rainbow could be carried to target striking
distance and air-launched by bombers or fighters, or launched
from ground systems. Each vehicle was preprogrammed for a designated
target area using the on-board computer and flight control system.
Once launched, AGM-136A flew a preprogrammed course to its target
area and "loitered" until it detected transmissions
from an enemy radar. Once a radar source is detected and identified,
the UAV homed in to destroy it. Unlike other anti-radiation missiles,
Tacit Rainbow could not be "fooled" if the radar was
turned off to avoid being hit. As long as fuel remained, it could
wait and reattack that or another radar when operation resumed.
The Tacit Rainbow unmanned aerial
vehicle (UAV) was conceived in the early 1980s using experience
gained with anti-radar missiles in Vietnam. Its purpose was to
supplement manned aircraft in striking enemy air defenses. The
vehicle was designed for low cost production so that it could
be used in "swarms" against dense enemy air defense
The Naval Research Advisory Committee (NRAC) 1989 Summer Study
on "Defense Suppression in the Year 2000" recommended
the development a family of decoys (that is inexpensive, realistic,
modular, easy to carry onboard strike aircraft and carrier compatible,
including a lethal version) for use in conjunction with strike
operations to saturate the enemy IADS, and noted that Tacit Rainbow
did not meet these requirements.
The first Tacit Rainbow air-launch
occurred on July 30, 1984. More than 30 test launches were made,
from both bombers and fighters. The MLRS launcher was also used
for the Ground Launched Tacit Rainbow.
On 21 March 1989 the Acting Secretary
of the Air Force notified the Congress that the current program
acquisition unit cost of the Tacit Rainbow program had increased
by more than 15 percent, and on 23 May 1989 notification was
provided that the Tacit Rainbow Program has exceeded its baseline
unit cost by more than 15 percent.
Procurement funding for the Tacit Rainbow missile was deferred
by the Congress in October 1989, pending successful completion
of operational testing. The next year's budget request for Fiscal
Year 1991 contained $9.759 million to continue development of
Tacit Rainbow anti-radiation cruise missile. The budget request
also contained $227.4 million for procurement. Subsequently,
the Air Force formally informed the Congress that an additional
$27.0 million would be required in research and development funding
because of delays in the program. The House authorized $26.759
million for research and development, endorsing the increase
in funding requested by the Air Force. The House also provided
$59.5 million for procurement, which was earmarked in the budget
request for facilitating the factory of the follow-on competitor
for the Tacit Rainbow program. The House restricted the obligation
of the $59.5 million until the Secretary of the Air Force submitted
a report evaluating the cost effectiveness of proceeding with
two production contractors for the Tacit Rainbow program. The
Senate authorized $36.759 million for research and development,
and authorized the procurement funds as requested. The conferees
recommend an authorization of $36.759 million for research and
development and $59.5 million for advance procurement and agreed
to the legislative provisions proposed by the House.
The ground-launched version of
the nonnuclear TACIT RAINBOW ALCM had a design range of only
430 kilometers, and was therefore well below the newly agreed
START threshold of 600 kilometer range for counting ALCMs.
Tacit Rainbow was a purely conventional
system and there were no plans to equip it with nuclear warheads;
therefore, the 1990 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty [START] agreement
did not have any effect on the US ability to employ it. The Soviet
effort to capture Tacit Rainbow was part of their overall effort
in START to try to constrain US conventional programs. The ALCM
range issue in the START negotiations was a question of what
range would mark the threshold between short-range systems not
limited by START in any way and long-range nuclear ALCMs which
would be covered by START. The US concern on ALCM range was above
all to protect US conventional options. Since future non-nuclear
ALCMs like Tacit Rainbow will not be limited by START if they
are externally distinguishable from nuclear ALCMs, the US accepted
the 600 kilometer range threshold in START. As a result of its
tough negotiating on this provision, the United States gained
concessions which eased the way for the deployment of new conventionally
armed cruise missiles such as the highly accurate Tacit Rainbow.
Secretary of State Baker agreed to constrain US military programs
in a so-called `side letter' to the proposed START framework
statement in which the United States agreed not to modernize
the Tacit Rainbow ALCM, and also not to equip this ALCM with
a nuclear warhead. This letter informed the Soviets of the fact
that the US had no plans to convert the non-nuclear Tacit Rainbow
ALCM to a nuclear ALCM.
In October 1990 Air Force investigators
looking into mismangement at Northrop concluded that many of
the expensive weapons systems built by that contractor -- including
the B-2, the Tacit Rainbow anti-radar missile, the F-15's jamming
system, the guidance system for the MX missile -- were riddled
with fraud and performance defects.
The program was cancelled for
budget reasons in 1991, prior to the planned start of production
in 1992. During the previous two decades, only two programs were
cancelled after full scale testing had commenced and before a
substantial amount of serial production: the Army's DIVAD gun
(the Sergeant york), and the Tacit Rainbow missile.
Joint Standoff Weapon [JSOW]
In 1986, the Air Force began
developing TSSAM to provide a low observable conventional cruise
missile. Key characteristics included long-range, autonomous
guidance, automatic target recognition, and precision accuracy
with a warhead able to destroy a well-protected structure.
The Tri-Service Standoff Attack
Missile (TSSAM) was a joint service program with the Air Force
as the lead service. The program objective was to develop a family
of highly survivable, conventional, stealthy cruise missiles
to satisfy tri-service requirements to effectively engage a variety
of high value land and sea targets. The technical approach to
develop a modular stealth cruise missile which can employ several
payloads and guidance systems to engage the required targets.
All variants used a GPS aided inertial navigation system. The
Navy and Air Force (unitary variant) missiles used an imaging
infrared terminal sensor for autonomous recognition and homing
on fixed land targets and sea targets. The other Air Force variant
contained the Combined Effects Bomblet (CEB) submunition to attack
land targets. Integration efforts were planned for the Air Forces
B-52H, F-16C/D, B-1 and B-2 and the Navys F/A-18C/D.
TSSAM was touted as the most silver of bullets because of its
low observability capability.
Northrop Aircraft Division's
cost/schedule control system did not provide the Government with
reliable data and the data was not promptly submitted; therefore,
the Joint System Program Office could not effectively measure
the contractor's performance or use the cost data to make informed
management decisions. Management of TSSAM Program funds was fragmented
among the three Military Departments, resulting in an awkward
budgeting process, funding shortfalls, and delays in program
and contracting decisions.
The system had significant development
problems, and estimates of the unit cost in production were unacceptably
high. That made it a logical candidate for cancellation. After
the TSSAM procurement unit cost increased from an estimated $728,000
in 1986 to $2,062,000 in 1994 (then-year dollars), the Department
of Defense (DOD) terminated the program. On 09 December 1994
the Secretary of Defense announced cancellation of the TSSAM
program. DEPSECDEF Program Decision Memorandum (PDM) IV, 16 Dec
94, canceled the TSSAM and associated contracts. Many TSSAM program
specifics remain SECRET -Special Access Required per the 31 March
1993 Program Security Guide.
Following a comprehensive reassessment
of force requirements, the Air Force and Navy agreed they urgently
needed an affordable missile with most of TSSAM's characteristics.
They proposed a joint program that would build upon the lessons
learned from TSSAM and more recent programs that use new acquisition
approaches. On September 20, 1995, the Principal Deputy Under
Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology approved
the initiation of the JASSM program, under Air Force leadership.
The publicly released retouched
photo of TSSAM revealed the vehicle's stealthy shape, but little
of engine ports or sensors.
Joint Air to Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM)
The AGM-154A Joint Standoff Weapon or
JSOW is currently under development by Raytheon [Texas Instruments]
for the Air Force and the Navy. The AGM-154A (Formerly Advanced
Interdiction Weapon System) is intended to provide a low cost,
highly lethal glide weapon with a standoff capability. JSOW family
of kinematically efficient, air-to-surface glide weapons, in
the 1,000-lb class, provides standoff capabilities from 15 nautical
miles (low altitude launch) to 40 nautical miles (high altitude
launch). The JSOW will be used against a variety of land and
sea targets and will operate from ranges outside enemy point
defenses. The JSOW is a launch and leave weapon that employs
a tightly coupled Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation
System (INS), and is capable of day/night and adverse weather
operations. The JSOW uses inertial and global positioning system
for midcourse navigation and imaging infra-red and datalink for
The JSOW is just over 13 feet
in length and weighs between 1000-1500 pounds. Extra flexibility
has been engineered into the AGM-154A by its modular design,
which allows several different submunitions, unitary warheads,
or non-lethal payloads to be carried. The JSOW will be delivered
in three variants, each of which uses a common air vehicle, or
truck, while substituting various payloads.
AGM-154A (Baseline JSOW) The warhead of the AGM-154A consists
of 145 BLU-97/B submunitions. Each bomblet is designed for multi-target
in one payload. The bomblets have a shaped charge for armor defeat
capability, a fragmenting case for material destruction, and
a zirconium ring for incendiary effects.
AGM-154B (Anti-Armor) The warhead for the AGM-154B
is the BLU-108/B from the Air Force's Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW)
program. The JSOW will carry six BLU-108/B submunitions. Each
submunition releases four projectiles (total of 24 per weapons)
that use infrared sensors to detect targets. Upon detection,
the projectile detonates, creating an explosively formed, shaped
charge capable of penetrating reinforced armor targets.
Texas Instruments (TI) Defense Systems & Electronics (DS&E)
began Engineering and Manufacturing Development (E&MD) of
JSOW in 1992. In December 1995, the Navy and Texas Instruments
completed Development Test IIB (DT-IIB) at the Naval Air Weapon
Center, (NAWC) China Lake and Point Mugu, California, with 10
for 11 successful flights of the AGM-154A BLU-97 dispenser variant.
On January 6, 1997, it was announced
that Texas Instruments Defense Systems & Electronics was
being purchased by Raytheon Company, Lexington, Massachusetts.
The U.S. Navy began Operational Evaluation (OPEVAL) testing in
February 1997, after successful development testing and initial
operational testing programs. The test program resulted in a
42 for 44 success rate or greater than 96% successful JSOW launches.
The Air Force began Development Test & Evaluation (DT&E)
flight testing of JSOW on the F-16 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida,
in March 1996. Air Force testing of the baseline JSOW was hindered
by less than desired progress in the area of F-16/JSOW integration.
AGM-154A (Baseline variant) system
entered Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) on schedule. The $65.9
million LRIP contract was awarded by the Naval Air Systems Command
(NAVAIR), in Arlington, Virginia, for 111 JSOW AGM-154A/baseline
systems. LRIP for the other two variants are scheduled for FY99
and FY00, respectively. On 29 December 1998 Raytheon Systems
was awarded a $133,881,355 firm-fixed-price contract to provide
funding for the Full Rate Production Lot 1 of JSOW AGM-154A and
the Low Rate Initial Production Lot I of the JSOW AGM-154B (AGM-154A:
Navy - 328 and Air Force - 75) (AGM-154B: Navy - 3 and Air Force
- 21). Work is expected to be completed by March 2001.
JSOW test articles were deployed
in 1997 aboard the USS Nimitz and are currently deployed on the
USS Eisenhower. JSOW initial introduction to the operational
commands was on the Navy/Marine Corps F/A-18 in mid-1998. As
of late 1997 a number of remaining JSOW test assets were on an
interim deployment for further operational evaluation. USS Carl
Vinson 's air wing first employed the JSOW during combat over
southern Iraq on Jan. 25, 1999.
On 29 December 1999 Raytheon
Systems Company, Tucson, Ariz., was awarded a $109,573,867 modification
to previously awarded contract N00019-99-C-1014 to exercise an
option for the full rate production Lot 2 of the Joint Standoff
Weapon AGM-154A for the U.S. Navy (414) and U.S. Air Force (74).
Work will be performed in Tucson, Ariz., and was expected to
be completed by March 2002.
Weapon planning will be accomplished
using the Navy's Tactical Automated Mission Planning System (TAMPS)
and the Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS). Aircraft-to-weapon
communications will be via the MIL-STD-1760 interface, making
inflight programming/targeting possible, as well as preflight
data loading. The weapon will be deployed from both carrier-
and land-based aircraft, employing insensitive munitions technology.
The JSOW will be employed on the following aircraft: F/A-18A/B,
C/D, and E/F; AV-8B; F-14A/B and /D; F-16C/D; F-15E; F-117; B-1B;
Air Force/Navy Joint Air to Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM)
program was established in the fiscal year 1996 budget, following
cancellation of the Tri-Service Stand-off Attack Missile (TSSAM),
to develop a replacement for that system at the earliest possible
date. In light of the urgent need for the operational capability
that would have been provided by the TSSAM, the Secretary of
Defense established a joint program in the Air Force and the
Navy for development of a replacement for TSSAM, canceled for
escalating program cost, that would meet the requirements of
both services. After the termination of the TSSAM, the Services
continued to reiterate the need for a high survivability standoff
weapon capable of attacking a variety of deep interdiction type
targets. The Joint Requirements Oversight Council revalidated
the need for the weapon in an August 1995 mission need statement.
JASSM is a precision cruise missile
designed for launch from outside area defenses to kill hard,
medium-hardened, soft, and area type targets. The threshold integration
aircraft are the F-16, B-52, and F/A-18 E/F, and the airframe
design is compatible with all JASSM launch platforms: the B-52H,
F-16C/D, F/A-18E/F, F-15E, F-117, B-1B, B-2, P-3C and S-3B. The
weapon is required to attack both fixed and relocatable targets
at ranges beyond enemy air defenses. After launch, it will be
able to fly autonomously over a low-level, circuitous route to
the area of a target, where an autonomous terminal guidance system
will guide the missile in for a direct hit. The key performance
parameters for the system are Missile Mission Effectiveness,
range, and carrier operability.
JASSM's midcourse guidance is provided by a Global Positioning
System (GPS)-aided inertial navigation system (INS) protected
by a new high, anti-jam GPS null steering antenna system. In
the terminal phase, JASSM is guided by an imaging infrared seeker
and a general pattern match-autonomous target recognition system
that provides aimpoint detection, tracking and strike. It also
offers growth potential for different warheads and seekers, and
for extended range.
Initially, the program entertained
proposals from seven contractors. The build-up to the Request
for Proposal release was a period of intense interaction between
all contractors and the government team. A 24-month JASSM Program
Definition and Risk Reduction contract was awarded to McDonnell
Douglas by the Department of Defense on June 17, 1996. A downselect
to one contractor for the engineering and manufacturing development
and full-rate production phases occured in April 1998 with the
selection of Lockheed-Martin. The Navy has proposed to replace
the joint program for JASSM with the Navy's SLAM-ER, prior to
completion of the current program definition and risk reduction
phase for JASSM. The proposal is one of the program alternatives
that may be considered at the Milestone II review for entry of
the JASSM program into engineering and manufacturing development
in July 1998, which will evaluate the technical progress in the
program and risk reduction phase, cost and operational effectiveness
analysis, and other factors.
Low-rate initial production decision
for JASSM is in the year 2000, with full-scale production scheduled
to run from 2002 to 2009. Total missile production for the U.S.
Air Force is expected to be 2,400 missiles; the total for the
U.S. Navy is yet to be determined. The total program is valued
at approximately $3 billion.
In-service in the French Armed Forces : 1985 (on Jaguar), 1993
(on Mirage 2000D), 1995 (on upgraded Super Etendard)
Type: short- to medium-range standoff missile
Typical mission : Bombardment of targets requiring high precision
Modifications: AS.30 - basic missile
AS.30L - laser-guided version [Data for AS.30L]
Wingspan: 1.0 m
Length: 3.7 m
Diameter: 0.34 m
Launch weight: 520 kg
Max. speed: 1700 km/h
Ceiling: 10000 m
Minimum range: 3 km
Maximum range: 11 km
Propulsion two stage solid propellant rocket motors, composite
booster, double-based sustainer
Guidance: semi-active laser homing
Warhead impact-fuzed high-explosive semi-armor piercing, 240
Can pierce 2 meters of concrete before blowing up
Ignition : Impact fuse with possible retarded spark
Special related equipment : Laser pod Atlis (Thomson-CSF)
Laser designation pod with thermal camera (Thomson-CSF)
Major operational capabilities :
High accuracy on target (1m) with ground or airborne laser lightning
(pod Atlis or PDL-CT)
Success rate of 97% for about 60 missiles launched in the Gulf
in 1991 and in Bosnia in 1995
The AS-30L missile (launch weight
520 kg, warhead weight 240 kg) has a maximum airspeed of Mach
1.5 and a range of fire from 3 to 10 km. The power plant is a
solid- propellant missile engine with two degrees of thrust.
Missile control is hydrodynamic with the help of jet stream reflectors.
Employment of the missiles from French Jaguar aircraft in the
Persian Gulf war proved very effective. In the course of combat
sorties, AS-30L launches usually were made from a dive at an
altitude of 1.3 km (dive entry altitude 2.2 km).
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